The ERA-AQUA 2.0 model was developed to assess the risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers and trade.

The ERA-AQUA model is able to calculate environmental and human health risks for a wide range of chemicals and aquaculture scenarios based on information on environmental characteristics, aquaculture management practices, and physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the compound under study.

Developed by Wageningen Environmental Research and IMDEA Water


Suggested users: Aquaculture producers, regulators

Format: Spreadsheet model

Cost: Free to use but must register to get access

Data requirements: Chemical data: dosage, physico-chemical properties, toxicity data. Scenario data: pond characteristics, aquaculture management practices.

Time requirements: It will take a few seconds to run if the data is available.

Required resources: Microsoft Excel (no specific version)

Prior knowledge: Some understanding of aquaculture pond systems, management practices, and basic exposure and risk assessment. There is a guidance document to help use the tool. 


Scientific papers and relevant literature

Rico A, Jacobs R, Van den Brink PJ, Tello A (2017). A probabilistic approach to assess antibiotic resistance development risks in environmental compartments and its application to an intensive aquaculture production scenario. Environmental Pollution 231: 918-928.

Rico A, Van den Brink PJ (2014). Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia. Science of the Total Environment 468-469: 630-641.

Rico A, Geng Y, Focks A, Van den Brink PJ (2013). Modeling human health and environmental risks of veterinary medicines applied in pond aquaculture. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 32: 1196-1207.